Global economy has played a huge role in the 19th Century Latin America, as they overthrown the Spanish monarchy. Chile was liberated by Don José de San Martín in 1821 after declaring war on Sep 18 of 1810. After the independence war, Chile established foreign trade relations with multiple countries like other Latin American countries to develop their economy. During the 19th Century, the most important country that Chile established trade relations with was the Great Britain. As a result of trade relations, a costal city that is located in the Pacific coast Valparaiso became an immigrant and merchant based city. Valparaiso with a diverse background not only helped Chile progress, but also brought cultural and religious diversity to the city that carries until today.
During the 19th Century, as a result of Queen Victoria and her reforms, the Great Britain gained the most influence and power in the world. They established trade relations with multiple countries and colonies, as well as immigration to Latin America. The Great Britain dominated the Chilean international trade until the end of the 19th Century when the American influence was growing. Until today, there are 700,000 Anglo descendants (English, Welsh and Scottish) in Chile, Argentina and Brazil with Chile having the largest population. Most Anglo Chileans nowadays reside in the Valparaiso region as a result of their immigration from the 19th Century.
Trades with the Great Britain was growing because of the Victorian regime and the first Industrial Revolution. In 1825, 6.4 millions of trading goods arrived at the port of Valparaiso. In 1830, 10% out of 25, 000 residents were foreign-born. From 1810 to 1914, approximately 32,000 English people lived in Valparaiso. There were products like tea and steam engines. The monopoly model in Chile set up an “informal empire” for the British in the Southern cone. It was normal to see immigration advertisements of moving to Chile with benefits, as well as the British Consulate of Valparaiso updating visa policies.
The Anglo influence in Valparaiso brought diversity to the city while the majority of the immigrants resided in Cerro Alegre and Cerro Concepción. The British immigrants and merchants built up their community in the 19th Century, as they built their own English schools, churches, shops, houses, news press and costumes in Chile. Additionally, there are fire engines in Valparaiso with British models. The major English news sources in the 19th Century were Valparaiso and West Coast Mail, English Mercury and the Star of Chile that published international and local level news on a weekly basis. The Anglo immigrants and merchants established their own little community while keeping their cultural heritage on the other side of the world.
It is worth investigating the Anglo influence in Valparaiso, Chile in the 19th Century in terms of international trade, immigration and cultural influence. The research questions are: (1). What was the British motives of developing trade relations with Chile? Why did Chile want to build a major trade relations with the Great Britain at the start of 19th Century? (2). What were the intentions of settlements in Valparaiso? Was it for temporary stay or starting a new life in Chile? (3). How did the Anglo community develop and influence the Valparaiso region? (4). Were the Anglo Chileans integrated well with the community or not?
Valparaiso and West Coast Mail 1870-1872
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